This week, we heard the good news that the big phone networks have agreed to automatically block foreign scam calls, and we heard the bad news that an Ofcom survey has revealed that 45 million people in the UK were targeted by scam text messages or phone calls this summer!
The challenge has been that scammers based overseas have been able to use Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) / internet-based calling technology to make it look as though a phone call or text is coming from a real telephone number. A recent ‘Which?’ survey has shown that in the 12 months to March 2021, phone call and text message fraud in England, Wales and Northern Ireland had risen by 83 per cent from the previous year and Action Fraud data confirmed that was the biggest rise across all types of fraudulent attacks.
The reasons why there have been such big and sustained increases in (foreign) scam calls and texts include:
– A telephone identification protocol called SS7, which dates back decades, is still part of the landlines and the 2G and 3G parts of mobile phone networks (even with a 5G-enabled handset). Scammers know how to steal the ‘presentation number’ and link this to their own number, thereby giving them the ability to make it look as though calls and texts are from legitimate UK sources. The presentation number is the number that the telephone network is told that a user is calling or texting from and the usage of the SS7 protocol means that the presentation number can’t be checked against the originating number, thereby enabling the fraud to continue.
– Some critics have suggested that telecoms companies don’t appear to be inspecting the traffic they receive from VoIP providers and just let it through onto the networks, thereby making it easier for scammers.
– There is a low barrier to entry for scammers because the prevalence of (and easy access to) enterprise VoIP telephone systems which means that they can easily (and relatively cheaply) build their own systems to spoof mobile numbers.
– The pandemic fuelled a big rise in online ordering which meant more deliveries, which led to fraudsters finding more success impersonating mail and delivery scams and using fake notifications by text and phone. This led the fraudsters to increase their efforts to capitalise on the opportunity.
Types of Attacks Using Foreign Phone & Text Scams
The types of attack that use scam phone calls and texts that incorporate ‘number spoofing’ (using Internet calling technology to make a phone call or text appear as though it is originating from a genuine number) include:
– Vishing. This combination of ‘voice’ and ‘phishing’ and describes the criminal process of using internet telephone service (VoIP) calls to deceive victims into divulging personal and payment data. Vishing scams to homes often use recorded voice messages e.g., claiming to be from banks and government agencies to make victims respond in the first instance.
– Smishing. This is where an attacker sends a text/SMS message purporting to be from a reputable company e.g., the Royal Mail or a parcel delivery company/courier service. The idea is that the recipient (who may be expecting a parcel delivery) is fooled into clicking on the link in the text message and this either send sends the attacker personal information (credit card number or password) or downloads a malicious program/malware to the victim’s phone. The malware can be used for snooping on the user’s smartphone data or sending sensitive data silently to an attacker-controlled server.
The Good News From Ofcom
Following recent reports from the Daily Telegraph (and Ofcom’s own survey findings that 45 million people in the UK received scam text messages or phone calls this summer), the communications regulator has been working with the big telecoms companies to implement technical solutions which could lead to a big reduction in these types of scam messages. Ofcom’s Network and Communications Group Director, Lindsey Fussell, says on the Ofcom website “We’ve been working with telecoms companies to implement technical solutions, including blocking at source, suspicious international calls that are masked by a UK number. We expect these measures to be introduced as a priority, and at pace, to ensure customers are better protected.”
Although only one network (TalkTalk) has introduced the blocking measures so far, Ofcom says that it expects the new measures to be rolled out by the phone networks as a priority and that others are looking at how to implement it.
Some critics have already poured cold water on the good news announcement by pointing out that:
– The systemic issue of VoIP providers not checking whether the calls they hand to telecoms networks are actually legitimate needs to be effectively tackled to solve the problem.
– Simply cracking down on “foreign calls” could actually damage legitimate businesses and individual VoIP customers who may still be UK based, even if the traffic appears to be external.
The Bad News – Ofcom Survey Reveals Extent of Scam Calls
As mentioned, an Ofcom survey from September this year revealed that almost 45 million people in the UK were targeted by scam text messages or phone calls over the summer months. A staggering 82 per cent of the 2,000 people surveyed said they had received a suspicious message as a text, recorded message, or live phone call to a landline or mobile. This represents an estimated 44.6 million adults in the UK.
The survey showed that most of these scams use text messages (71 per cent said they’d received a suspicious text). Also, the figures revealed that more than four in 10 people (44 per cent) who reported receiving a suspicious text message said it happened at least once a week.
Those who appear to have been targeted most with the scam calls and messages are:
– Those aged 16-34. Three-quarters of this age group have been targeted.
– 60 per cent of people aged 75 and over reported receiving a potential scam call to their landline.
What To Do?
The advice from Ofcom for those who receive a scam / suspicious text message is:
For Suspicious Texts
– Read any suspicious text carefully and look for any details that don’t seem right.
– Don’t click on any links or give out any personal or bank details.
– Report any suspicious texts to 7726 and make your friends and family aware too. Forwarding the message to 7726 directs the message to the mobile provider. If certain numbers are reported by enough people, these numbers can then be investigated and potentially blocked, thereby helping disrupt or to flush-out fraudsters and prevent more people being exposed to scam attempts.
The Ofcom survey showed that more than half of people who received a suspicious text either deleted the message (53 per cent) or blocked the number (52 per cent). These are, of course, other options but reporting the text can help to get the scam stopped.
For Suspicious Phone Calls
– Do not give out any personal or bank details.
– Hang up and then call the company they claim to be from to check if it is a scam. Use a trusted source (e.g. their official website) as the phone number.
– Report scam calls to Action Fraud (for England, Wales, and Northern Ireland) and make your family aware too. In Scotland, scam calls can be reported to Police Scotland via 101.
In the Ofcom research, almost half (49 per cent) of those who received a suspicious live voice call, and more than four in ten (44 per cent) who received a suspicious recorded message, blocked the number.
What Does This Mean For Your Business?
Scam calls and texts are not just disruptive and costly but are a way in for cyber-criminals and the results of cyber attacks can be devastating to businesses and threaten their very existence. The ability of cyber-criminals to use internet calling technology, seemingly at will, to launch attacks is a loophole that has been open far too long. Some responsibility appears to lie with VoIP providers who may not be checking the calls they hand over, but this action by Ofcom (and hopefully, more big communications companies than just TalkTalk) looks as though it has the potential to dramatically reduce the threat posed by scam calls and texts. The danger is that cracking down too hard on “foreign calls” could actually damage legitimate businesses that may be UK-based; care needs to be taken in implementation. Many UK businesses will benefit from not having to deal with all-too-frequent scam calls, any one of which could prove highly dangerous.
The Royal Mint has signed an agreement with Canadian start-up Excir to recover gold and other precious metals from old smartphone and laptop circuit boards.
Precious Waste Mountain
A recent assessment by the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) forum has concluded that this year’s worldwide mountain of waste electronic and electrical equipment will total an estimated 57.4 million tonnes – greater than the weight of the Great Wall of China, Earth’s heaviest artificial object. Also, an estimated 151 million or more phones a year, approximately 416,000 a day, are simply incinerated or landfilled, and that 40 per cent of heavy metals in US landfills come from discarded electronics.
More Than Ore
According to Dr Ruediger Kuehr, director of the UN’s Sustainable Cycles (SCYCLE) programme, “A tonne of discarded mobile phones is richer in gold than a tonne of gold ore.”
Dr Kuehr also claims that one million mobile phones contain “24 kg of gold, 16,000 kg of copper, 350 kg of silver, and 14 kg of palladium”.
Plans To Extract Gold At Plant In Wales
Through its agreement with Excir, The Royal Mint intends to build a plant in Wales that could reclaim hundreds of kilograms of gold and other precious metals from electronic waste such as mobile phones and laptops.
Excir has developed chemical solutions that can extract the metals from the circuit boards. Sean Millard, the Mint’s chief growth officer says that Excir can “selectively pull out precious metals with a high degree of purity,” and that although the mint currently uses the process at small scale, a new plant “would look to process hundreds of tonnes of e-waste per annum, generating hundreds of kilograms of precious metals”.
Value Vs Cost?
A kilogram of gold is worth around $55,000 at current prices so, although extracting the gold from old circuit boards sounds potentially profitable (and better for the planet). It is not yet clear, however, how much the new extraction plant and its operation would cost.
Reasons For The Electronic Waste Mountain
Some of the reasons why there has been a growth in the consumption of electronics include:
– Smaller periods between new product releases.
– Limited options for repairing broken items and lack of the ‘right to repair.’
– Fast device development e.g., mobile phones, leading to a market dependency on rapid replacement of older devices.
What Does This Mean For Your Business?
As identified by the Royal Mint and Excir, recovering, recycling, and returning precious metals to the production cycle not only provides a good business opportunity but also new supplies don’t need to be mined, thereby helping the environment.
Tackling the growing e-waste crisis, however, will take a number of different measures over time, globally. Getting to a situation where there is the creation of a circular economy for electronic goods where waste is minimised, the most is made of resources, the environment and health are protected, and businesses and developing economies can still meet their demand, will take a wide variety of actions. These include legislation and having a more digital and connected world to help accelerate progress towards sustainable development goals, thereby helping emerging economies, and ensuring that less precious minerals, metals, and resources are dumped into landfill. Also, an approach that could dematerialise the electronics industry (e.g., through ‘device-as-a-service’ business models), better product tracking and take-back schemes, and entrepreneurs, investors, academics, business leaders and lawmakers working together could help make the circular economy work. Increasing the ‘right to repair’ in electronic products is another way to help tackle the crisis and help the environment going forward.
Microsoft has announced that the first preview of Android apps on Windows 11 is now available, albeit currently for Windows Insiders in the Beta Channel in the U.S. Others to follow.
50 Apps To Try
Microsoft says that it has partnered with Amazon and popular app developers to curate 50 apps for those on the Windows Insiders program to test and validate across a broad set of hardware.
The apps that Windows Insiders are now allowed to try out include:
– Popular mobile games like Lords Mobile, June’s Journey, Coin Master, and more.
– Books with Kindle, or a digital comic series with Comics e.g., to swipe through on a tablet.
– Kids content such as maths, reading, and writing skills guides plus award-winning Khan Academy Kids, and Lego Duplo World.
Not Available on Windows Before
Windows 11 is the first version to allow users to use the Microsoft Store to download mobile apps that were not available on Windows before. Microsoft says that “Running Android apps and games on Windows 11 will feel familiar, effortless, and integrated.”
New Component – Windows Subsystem
The Android apps can operate in Windows because of a new component on top of Windows 11 called Windows Subsystem for Android™, which powers the Amazon Appstore and its catalogue. The Subsystem includes the Linux kernel and the Android OS based on the Android Open Source Project (AOSP) version 11. The subsystem comes from the Microsoft Store as part of the Amazon Appstore install. Microsoft says that more support for more APIs, capabilities, and scenarios will be added over time.
Although it’s an exciting prospect to be able to run Android apps on Windows 11, it’s important to remember that things are still very much at the testing stage (just for ‘insiders’). Those who want to see the preview in the Dev channel will need to have a Windows 11 PC (that meets the spec) set to the US region, in the Beta Channel, plus a US-based Amazon account in order to access the Amazon Appstore.
Possible To Sideload Apps
Some tech commentators have, however, pointed out that it is possible to sideload Android apps (e.g., using the Android Debug Bridge/ADB), so those who feel confident doing so don’t need to be limited to the selection of apps on the Amazon Appstore.
What Does This Mean For Your Business?
Microsoft is aiming for some big value-adding changes with Windows. Its partnership with Amazon and some big app developers to allow Android apps in Windows 11, therefore, should be quite appealing to users, and could create opportunities for more app developers. It also shows how there is a move towards merging of mobile and laptop devices, thereby making things more consistent for a generation that’s used to simply doing most things on their mobile. Allowing apps in Windows 11 looks likely to be well received by both home and business users and provides another way for Microsoft to compete with Apple. Many reviewers, for example, have already noted the Mac-like interface to the Windows 11 OS. Although the new feature has been announced with much fanfare, it is still in the testing stage and many businesses are still some way off from upgrading to Windows 11 anyway.
In this insight, we look at what a digital twin is, what the benefits of using one are, and which industries commonly use digital twins.
What Is It?
A digital twin is an accurate virtual model of a physical object that uses data gathered from sensors on the physical object to run simulations, study performance issues and generate possible improvements. The improvements discovered during testing of the virtual version of the object can then be made to the physical object.
Dates Back To 1960s NASA
The first use of digital twin technology dates back to NASA’s use of exact earthbound replicas of voyaging spacecraft being used for study and simulation purposes by flight crews. Fast forward a few decades and Dr Michael Grieves of the University of Michigan introduced the digital twin software concept to manufacturing in 2002.
Why Use A Digital Twin?
The reasons for using a digital twin include:
– The scale and complexity of the real object and the need to safely carry out tests without damage, disruption, and costs of having to remove/replace, get close to the object.
– Some objects may be critical to processes and/or worth enough to invest financial resources in to create a digital twin to ensure the best possible performance and add value.
– Digital twins can be used to study more issues from far more vantage points than standard simulations and have greater potential to improve products and processes.
Types of Digital Twins
Different types of digital twins include:
– Component twins/parts twins. These are used for smaller, individual component parts.
– Asset twins. These are used to study how the interaction between two or more components (known as ‘asset’) could be improved.
– System/unit twins. These are used to help improve performance by studying how assets work together in a system.
– Process twins. This is larger-scale digital twin, used to improve the effectiveness of whole systems such as an entire production facility.
Which Industries Use Digital Twins?
Examples of industries that typically use digital twins include:
– Construction (and engineering) – e.g., for buildings, bridges, and other complex structures.
– The Aerospace and automotive industries – e.g., creating digital twins for parts of turbines, automobiles, and aircraft. Also, the use of digital twins may be vital to improving the performance and safety of EV batteries, thereby helping to push the EV market forward.
– Manufacturing – to help improve efficiency, competitiveness, design customisation, predictive maintenance, shop floor matters and product development.
– Energy/power – e.g., using digital twins to help improve mechanisms for generating power and transmitting it.
– Healthcare – e.g., to improve personalised care.
– Supply chain – e.g., Optimizing warehouse design and operational performance and creating a logistics network.
– Retail – e.g., customer modelling and simulations.
The Benefits of Digital Twins
The benefits of digital twins include:
– Saving costs, time, and generating competitive advantage in production by enabling more effective research and design of products, thanks to the large amount of data that can be created about performance outcomes.
– Enabling streamlining and peak efficiency to be maintained due to being able to constantly monitor and test the digital twin.
– Better product decision-making by helping manufacturers to decide what should happen to products at the end of their lifecycle – i.e., matters relating to final processing, recycling, and choosing which product materials to be harvested.
Challenges To Digital Twin Technology
Some of the main challenges to digital twin technology include:
– Possible security issues – i.e., potential theft/compromising of the large amounts of data generated and flowing between multiple devices.
– Management of sometimes complex system of design data for digital twins perhaps amongst partners and suppliers.
– The cost and complexity may be an issue for smaller companies, thereby possibly putting them at a disadvantage to larger competitors.
What Does This Mean For Your Business?
Digital twin technology provides a way for businesses and organisations to gain new insights into their products, processes and systems that can drive improvements in efficiency and help to create value and innovation. Having a virtual copy that works on data from the real object offers more vantage points than standard simulations and gives businesses the opportunity to gain a much better understanding of products and systems while saving them time and money.
If your Gmail account has filled up with old emails that look like they may take some time to delete, here’s how to quickly set up a filter to delete them automatically.
– Open Gmail, click on the ‘Settings’ (top right), and select ‘See all settings.’
– Select ‘Filters and Blocked Addresses,’ and ‘Create a new filter.’
– In the pop-up box, type older_than:X on the “has the words” field. X is the timeframe for deleting old messages, d is days, w is for weeks, m is for months, and y is for years. For example, to set the time frame to be four years, change the X to 4y.
– Select ‘Create filter’ and select ‘OK.’
– Check the box next to the ‘Delete it’ option and ‘Also apply filter to.’
– Select ‘Create filter.’
– Emails older than the date you specified will now be automatically deleted.
In Apple’s new “Building a Trusted Ecosystem for Millions of Apps” white paper, it describes the threat posed by ‘sideloading’ on its App Stores. Here’s what you need to know.
Sideloading normally refers to transferring a file between two local devices without the use of the internet e.g., by connecting your computer to a smartphone or tablet. The threat that Apple is referring to, however, is the sideloading of apps and alternative app stores on iOS – thus allowing developers to distribute apps outside of the App Store, through direct downloads or third-party app stores / the ability to install iPhone smartphone that does not come directly from the Apple-controlled iOS App Store.
Apple is currently facing pressure from regulators and some developers to support sideloading. Also, Apple does not currently allow third-party app stores to be downloaded from its own App Store and is under investigation in the EU, UK, and US over its App Store policies, awaiting the outcome of a legal battle with Epic Games relating to allegedly unfair terms set by Apple.
Arguments For Sideloading
Some of the arguments for allowing sideloading are that:
– It’s a way to tackle a monopoly (e.g., Apple’s) and give developers more freedom, improve competition, plus it could help developers to implement alternative business models and make the platform even more attractive.
– It gives users greater choice and perhaps pay lower prices for some apps.
– Apple may not be able to guarantee absolute security of the apps in its official store anyway.
Arguments Against Allowing Sideloading
Some of main arguments that Apple has given against allowing sideloading are:
– It would cripple the privacy and security protections that have made iPhone so secure, and expose users to serious security risks, such as mobile malware (i.e., adware, ransomware, spyware) plus banking and other credential-stealing trojans that masquerade as legitimate apps.
– Developers and advertisers could be harmed by the mobile malware attacks that allowing sideloading would enable (e.g., through piracy, intellectual property theft, and loss of advertising revenue).
– Developers could be harmed by the proliferation of fake, copycat, and pirated apps.
– Even if sideloading were limited to third-party app stores only, more harmful apps could reach users because it would be easier for cybercriminals to target them.
– Users would have less information about apps up-front, with less control over apps after they download them onto their devices
– Being made to remove protections against third-party access to proprietary hardware elements and non-public operating system functions could undermine core components of Apple’s platform security that protect the operating system and iPhone data and services, thereby making it easier for cybercriminals to spy on users’ devices and steal their data.
– Users could be forced to sideload an app they need, or duped into sideloading e.g., by mimicking the appearance of the App Store, or by suggesting free or expanded access to services or exclusive features.
– Apple has spent a long time investing in (and creating) industry-leading security protections for its iPhone App Store.
– According to Apple, most threats are predominantly present on platforms that support sideloading.
– Malware-infected mobile apps put all stakeholders in the mobile ecosystem at risk.
– Governments and international agencies worldwide along with cybersecurity experts warn against the risks posed by downloading apps from third-party app stores:
– For the full list (and explanation) of Apple’s objections to the idea of having to support sideloading, see Apple’s white paper (pdf) here: https://www.apple.com/privacy/docs/Building_a_Trusted_Ecosystem_for_Millions_of_Apps_A_Threat_Analysis_of_Sideloading.pdf
Others Allow It
Google’s Android already allows apps to be installed that don’t come directly from its official store, as do computing platforms. Also, Apple’s MacBooks and Microsoft Windows-powered laptops and desktops have allowed it.
What Does This Mean For Your Business?
The pressure on Apple to allow sideloading relates essentially to antitrust /anti-competition arguments. Some developers and others are objecting to what they see as Apple’s anti-competitive rules and Apple’s controversial app review process, and some developers have consequently dismissed many of the arguments that Apple presented in its recent white paper. Few would argue that Apple does have a generally good reputation over the security of its products and services, and individual and business users would clearly see the value in decisions made by Apple that would help protect the privacy and security of their data, but users also want choice, and app developers want more freedom. One threat on the horizon for Apple on this matter is that new EU regulation of digital markets could possibly force Apple to enable sideloading.
The facts remain, however, that competitors allow it, although this can, as Apple argues, sometimes lead to issues. For example, in 2019, a Security researcher discovered that 24 apps available for download in the Google Play Store contained contain ‘Joker’ malware.
Whether or not Apple does eventually allow sideloading, most of us (particularly Android users) are already aware of the fact that we need to be cautious when choosing apps to download. To minimise the risk of falling victim to damage caused by fake or malicious apps, users can check the publisher of an app, check which permissions the app requests when you install it, delete apps from your phone that you no longer use, and contact your phone’s service provider or visit the high street store if you think you’ve downloaded a malicious/suspect app.